Scientific American 2022 08.pdf

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AUGUST 2022
SCIENTIFICAMERICAN.COM
The New Race
to the Moon
Florence
Nightingale,
Data Explorer
EP
DE
EA
S
at the ocean
Wh
ing us about
is teach
h
life
on Eart
and beyond
RIES
OVE
ISC
E
D
M TH
FRO
INSIDE
STEALTH
MIGRATIONS
SEAFLOOR
SURPRISES
GHOSTLY
BIOLUMINESCENCE
LIFESAVING
DRUGS
Au g u s t 2 0 2 2
VO L U M E 3 2 7, N U M B E R 2
28
28
DISCOVERIES FROM THE DEEP
30 The Mystery
of Milky Seas
Scientists are beginning to understand
an eerie phenomenon that has
bewildered seafarers for centuries.
By Michelle Nijhuis
ways that affect every organism on the
planet.
By Katherine Harmon Courage
SPECIAL REPORT
56 Healing Waters
Compounds that sea creatures make
to defend themselves could yield life-
saving medicines.
By Stephanie Stone
40 Every Inch of the Seafloor
Solvin Zankl/NPL/Minden Pictures (
deep sea shrimp,
Sergestes
species
)
High-tech mapping is finding surprising
underwater formations everywhere.
By Mark Fischetti
65 Dynamic Seas
How the ocean organizes itself.
By Mark Fischetti, Skye Moret,
Jen Christiansen and Kelly J. Benoit-Bird
48 Stealth Migrations
Trillions of tiny animals may be coor-
dinating their daily movements in
S PAC E E X P LO R AT I O N
70 Turning the Tide
Discoveries keep revising our long-held
views of life.
By Timothy Shank
ON tHE C OVE R
The wunderpus octopus
is transparent when it is
a juvenile and becomes
reddish or rust-colored
with white bands as it
matures. The adult, only
nine inches long or so,
lives in the sand in relatively
shallow water and can
change its appearance
to ward off predators.
Photograph by
Yung-sen Wu.
72 The New Race to the Moon
Commercial spacecraft are vying to land on the lunar surface, but can they kick-start
a new space economy?
By Rebecca Boyle
H I S TO RY O F S C I E N C E
78 Florence Nightingale’s Data Revolution
The celebrated nurse improved public health through her groundbreaking use
of data storytelling.
By RJ Andrews
August 2022
, ScientificAmerican.com
1
4 From the Editor
6 Letters
8 Science Agenda
Exploration inspires us, gives us hope for a better future—
and saves lives.
By the Editors
10 Forum
The U.S. used the Marshall Islands as a nuclear testing
ground. It’s time to finish cleaning it up.
By Hart Rapaport and Ivana Nikolic Hughes
´
12 Advances
00
8
Worldwide shifts in psilocybin’s legal status. A chemical
hit to mason bees’ attractiveness. Human eye cells
revived after death. Flying dinosaurs launch from water.
24 Meter
A poet recalls her father’s prop plane flight into the
eye of a storm to study hurricanes.
By Sandy Solomon
26 The Science of Health
Diabetes screening tests are inaccurate for many
people of color.
By Claudia Wallis
86 Mind Matters
One brain region helps us create a consistent and
lasting identity.
By Robert Martone
00
12
88 Reviews
Signals of animal intelligence. Dissolving the barriers
of memory. A medicinal history of booze. Stories of the
Milky Way told through autobiography.
By Amy Brady
90 Observatory
Influential carbon-reduction models rely on tech
that doesn’t exist.
By Naomi Oreskes
91 50, 100 & 150 Years Ago
By Mark Fischetti
92 Graphic Science
86
00
Snapshots of the human genome over time reveal
how scientists pieced together our full genetic code.
By Clara Moskowitz and Martin Krzywinski
Scientific American (ISSN 0036-8733), Volume 327, Number 2, August 2022, published monthly by Scientific American, a division of Springer Nature America, Inc., 1 New York Plaza, Suite 4600, New York, N.Y. 10004-1562.
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August 2022
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